A table saw is versatile, and a great foundation for your shop. You can get some nice accessories to make the table itself more useful, such as an outfeed table, and a router table extension wing. My wood shop is a little smaller than yours (12 x 20), so floor space is a premium. Dealing with 4' x 8' sheet goods (handling and storage) is a pain in the ass, especially if you're working by yourself.
Other useful stationary tools would be a compound sliding miter saw with a stand that supports longer pieces, table-top drill press (so you can use the space under it for tool storage), and band saw. I like my planer, but that wouldn't be a primary purchase. A scroll saw would be fun, but not necessary. My dad has been getting into turning bowls with the lathe recently, which also seems fun but requires some special tools and a pretty decently powerful lathe.
When it comes to handheld power tools, you can never have enough drills, sanders, and routers. A jig saw will work in place of a band saw and is handy anyway. Hand tools: clamps, clamps, clamps. Mastering joinery is good, too - biscuit joinery, dowels, Kreg, etc. All have their advantages and disadvantages.
Lighting is also key - plenty of it, and of a color similar to where your furniture will end up so you can get a more accurate representation of the finish.
A lot of it will be prioritized by the style of furniture you like. I'm kind of a psuedo-Amish style kind of guy. Simple and angular. So, I can get by without a band saw because most of my shit is doable with the table saw.
My dream shop is not necessarily a lot of tools, but good ones. Black and Decker, modern Porter-Cable, Skil, and others are great ways to lose a finger. Porter-Cable routers are still OK, but the rest of their lineup has gone to complete shit after they got bought by Stanley Black and Decker. Bosch, Milwaukee, Makita, and DeWalt are all pretty good.
Travis Rassat Vector Cycle Works
BikeFit Instructor | FMS | F.I.S.T. | IBFI Toughman Triathlon Series Ambassador